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Background Background Economic and labour market context Between andthere was a substantial increase in GDP by During this time, unemployment rates for all categories decreased slightly, and total unemployment in was 3. Overall employment rate increased by 3. The highest growth rate was registered for male employment — 7p. The unemployment reached 5. Sincethe Labour Code was amended several times.

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In Augustin an attempt to fight undeclared work, the Government amended the Labour Code to include definitions of working situations to be considered as undeclared work. According to the new provisions, undeclared work is defined as employing a person without submitting an employment report to the General Register of Employees no later than the day before the start of the activity; employing a person without an individual employment contract in written form, the day before the start of the activity; employing a person when their individual employment contract is suspended; employing a person outside of part-time working hours.

The work of an employee outside the work schedule established under the individual part-time employment contracts has ceased to be sanctioned as a mere failure to comply with the provisions on overtime sanctioned with a fine of RON 1, to RON 3,but has become a situation of undeclared work sanctioned with a fine of RON 10, Starting in Augusteach employer is obliged to keep a copy of the individual employment contract for employees in the respective workplace.

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Currently, collective bargaining is allowed only at company and at sectoral level. A new social dialogue bill, bringing substantial amendments to the current Social Dialogue Act entered parliamentary debate in the fall of The draft law provides for lowering the number of employees needed for setting up a trade union from 15 to 3makes collective bargaining compulsory in companies with minimum 10 employees and prescribes new mechanisms for starting and solving the collective labour disputes.

Following the debates in the Committee for Labour, Family and Social Protection of the Senate, the trade union organisations managed to negotiate and bring other significant amendment to the draft law that facilitate the collective bargaining and social dialogue at company and sectorial level.

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The bill was rejected by the Senate at the end of November and sent to the Chamber of Deputies in. Inthe bill was debated with social partners in the Committee for Labour and Social Protection of the Chamber of Deputies but was not sent to plenary for vote. The change in parliamentary majority following the general elections in December diminish the chances that the bill will receive a positive vote in The law which provides that the living wage monthly consumption basket for decent living is the main criteria in setting the minimum wage became effective in August The addendum of the law provides a structure with categories of monthly expenditure of a household.

However, in the process of setting the minimum wage forthe Government did not apply the law, despite the criticism of the trade unions. Beforealthough trade unions were legally allowed, in practice they functioned as an annex to the Communist Party and the state.

Afterthe privatisation of state-owned companies put the jobs of thousands of workers in jeopardy, resulting in a rather conflict-driven type of industrial relations.

Despite their opposition to it, the trade unions did not obstruct the privatisation process. The restructuring and privatisation led to a massive decline in trade union membership. Once the transition period and the deindustrialisation process came to an end, industrial relations became darbo pasiūlymai casa serio consensus oriented.

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Collective bargaining legally allowed at all levels — national, sectoral and company. The national and sectoral trade unions had a stronger negotiation capacity than the company-level unions, which often lacked the know-how and human resources. These circumstances led to the situation in which the national and branch collective agreements were decisive for the negotiations of wages at the company level.

The abolition of national-level collective bargaining left approximately 1. Collective bargaining at company level became more important in this context, but company-level trade unions still struggle against a lack of darbo pasiūlymai casa serio expertise and the high representativeness criteria imposed by law. Inthe number of active collective agreements was This indicates a declining trend compared towhen the number of active collective agreements wascovering 2.

The COVID pandemic and especially the state of emergency in the second quarter of had a negative impact on social dialogue and industrial relations. During the state of emergency, a series of legal provisions military ordinancesaffecting labour market, employees etc, have entered into force without the prior consultation of social partners.

The right to strike was also suspended during the state of emergency.

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After the state of emergency has ended, the social dialogue has slowly recovered, many of the consultations and collective bargaining taking place online. They are interlocking parts in a multilevel system of governance that includes European, national, sectoral, regional provincial or local and company levels.

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This section looks into the main actors and institutions darbo pasiūlymai casa serio their role in Romania. Public authorities involved in regulating working life In Romania, the public authority and institutions active in the industrial relations area are detailed below.

InCES was relaunched, after its activity darbo pasiūlymai casa serio been blocked for several years due to unclear legislative provisions.

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The Ministry of Labour and Social Justice is the public authority responsible for social protection, employment, labour mobility. The Ministry of Labour and Social Justice is in charge dvejetainiai variantai nuo ko pradėti the elaboration and application of policies and strategies regarding social inclusion, social protection, employment and the labour market.

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The National Agency for Occupation of the Workforce ANOFM oversees the application of employment strategies and professional training as well as the implementation of social protection for the unemployed.

Labour Inspection supervises and controls the application of the labour legislation by the employers concerning working conditions, health and security at the workplace and other legal provisions.

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When resolving conflicts between an employer and employee, the newly issued Civil Code introduces a mandatory provision requiring the parties to go through a session during which the advantages of the mediation procedure are presented. Upon completion interaktyvi brokerių prekybos sistema this informative session, the parties may decide to carry on with the mediation procedure to resolve the conflict or to present their case in court.

The law stipulates the creation of Health and Safety Committees in companies with more than 50 employees. However, the Labour Inspectorate can compel the creation of Health and Safety Committees in companies with fewer than 50 employees if the nature of the activity and the risks associated with the workplace require such a committee.

The committees, formed by representatives of employers, workers and labour medicine specialists, coordinate and supervise the application of the health and safety provisions.

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The Ministry of Labour and Social Justice is the authority in the field of health and security at the workplace. The Ministry of Health is the key authority in the field of public health assistance that elaborates the regulations in the field of health protection at the workplace.

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The Labour Inspection controls the application of the health and safety at work legislation through implementing programmes regarding professional risks, running investigations and imposing sanctions if need be. Lastly, the National Institute for Scientific Research within the Labour and Social Protection offers scientific research that substantiates the policy measures in the area of health and safety at work.

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Trade unions About trade union representation The right to join a trade union is limited only to those workers that have an individual work contract, which prevents workers involved in atypical forms of work from joining a trade union. According to the most recent data, in there werecompanies with less than 15 employees, employing over 1 million people and where legislation restricts the creation of a trade union.

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People who hold a public function, such as magistrates, people in the military, employees of the Ministry of the Interior and employees of the secret services, cannot form or join a trade union. Together, they account for 1. These data might suggest that no significant loss in union density took place afterbut there is some difficulty in assessing the accuracy of this estimation, since data are unreliable and often conflicting, depending on the source. Trade union membership and trade union density.